Fauna of Belarus
The fauna of Belarus is characterized by a rich variety of its representatives. This was primarily influenced by the geographical position, as well as favorable climatic conditions . In the fauna of Belarus there are no species that live only in limited areas. In general, representatives of the European-Siberian type of area prevail. Fauna The Republic of Belarus is an integral component of the Earth's environment and biological diversity, renewable natural A resource that requires rational use.
Fauna protection is carried out at the state level. Created protected areas , work is carried out to record and conserve the populations of endangered species. Many representatives of the animal world are listed in the Red Data Book of Belarus: about 189 species of animals. The total number of 467 species of vertebrates and more than 30,000 species of invertebrates of various groups.
Birds of Belarus
Among vertebrate birds are the most diverse. There are 309 species, 227 of which nest on the territory of Republic of Belarus . In cities, the first birds that catch sight are doves. Also there are sparrows, crows, gulls, tits, and in the Botanical Garden of Minsk you can listen to the singing of a nightingale. Among the large birds in the country everyone knows the stork, swan, eagle, golden eagle, goose, capercaillie, owls.
The stork became a real symbol of the Republic of Belarus. Since ancient times it was considered an indicator of well-being and happiness. Even the name of the country is associated with the color of this bird. Stork is devoted to a lot of artistic and literary works, as well as elements of folklore.
Some species for the last centuries have disappeared forever, but at the same time new ones have appeared. For example, nesting sites of the big cormorant, the gray goose, the swan-hisd, the yellow heron, and others were seen. An important problem is the species disappearing in Europe, which inhabit the territory of the Republic of Belarus. At the state level, they are protected.
Mammals of Belarus
The first large mammal with which Belarus is immediately associated today is the bison , whose power and strength have become a real symbol of the state. It is the largest representative of fauna on the European part of the continent. Being a rather rare representative of fauna, and also considering their uniqueness and difficult history, bison are listed in the Red Book . You can see them in Belovezhskaya Pushcha , which is a national park, and also in Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve . These descendants of wild bulls were devoted to many works of art, ranging from the poem of Nikolai Gusovsky, ending with unusual sculptures, for example, from metal or straw.
Many representatives are used by man for the production of valuable fur. For example, fox, squirrel, marten, polecat, otter. Others - for the production of high-calorie meat: wild boar, deer, roe deer, elk. Some species, due to a sharp reduction in their number, are under the protection of the state, and hunting for them is strictly prohibited. In such a list came the bear brown, badger, bison. It should be noted that extinct species of animals have been recorded on the territory of Belarus. Among them there is a forest tarpan, a tour, in the woods a forest cat, a doe, a wolverine, a musk deer ceased to meet. Specialists had to artificially restore the population of the red deer. Among the disappearing representatives of the fauna is a bat. Today, 18 species of these mammals are known, one third of them are listed in the Red Data Book of the Republic of Belarus.
To meet wild animals in the wild, especially large ones, is quite problematic. In general, they do not seek to contact people, but you can see traces of your stay. On small rivers, in swampy terrain, for example, beaver buildings are often visible. Sometimes they settle even near human habitation. In the summer in the fields live mouse voles and other small rodents.
Amphibians and reptiles of Belarus
Amphibians and reptiles in the territory of the Republic of Belarus are mainly represented by frogs, frogs and newts . There is also a turtles in Belarus , which is a rarity. However, in the southern regions of the country, in Polissya, this is possible, since only there natural conditions allow them to survive. For turtles, it is important to have a marshy area with a dense network of reservoirs, as well as lack of human activity. This species, as unique, is listed in the Red Book. Three species of lizards and as many species of snakes are recorded. Among them there is only one poisonous species - a viper. They are found all over the territory. It is easy to distinguish such a snake: dark color, triangular head and geometric pattern on the back. In Belarus, basically, it is distinguished by the absence of yellow spots on the head, which is the case with ordinary horror.
Invertebrate animals of Belarus
Most invertebrate animals in Belarus are represented by insects . Of the most notable at once can be called mosquitoes, flies, bees, wasps, butterflies. Not immediately noticeable bugs, beetles. And the rest of the people notice very rarely. And there are more than 7,000 species of insects! They are represented by 7 orders: Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Semi-winged, Equopole, Diptera, Orthoptera.
Among other representatives of invertebrates, spiders, worms, mites, parasites are often found, the number of species of which is surprising. For example, only spiders in the Republic of Belarus were registered more than 400 species, and ticks - more than 600! Rotiferous (the smallest representatives of multicellular), branching and copepods, and also representatives of benthos (crustaceans and mollusks) are widely represented in aquatic systems.
Fauna of fishes
The water space of Belarus is also known for its diversity. In total there are more than 60 species of fish, among which there are both freshwater and marine. Over the centuries, some species have completely disappeared from the country's ichthyofauna, but many have appeared. Today, on the verge of extinction are 9 species: sterlet, Atlantic salmon, trout, trout, grayling, smelt, lobster lake, common barbel, fish. They are under the protection of the state.
The habitat of fish are rivers, streams, lakes, reservoirs, quarries. The greatest species diversity is observed in rivers. Among the largest are catfish, pike, and crucian carp. Also, salmon comes to Belarus, for example, which is a rather rare specimen here. During the spawning period, they swim along the river Vilia mainly in the Ostrovets district.
Fish has long been not only a trade, but also a sport. And this is undoubtedly a wonderful leisure. In Belarus, the most fishy places are called Narochansky National Park , Chigirin Reservoir , Braslav Lakes , Vileyskoye reservoir, rivers Niemen, Vilia.
National parks and reserves of Belarus
In Belarus, in order to preserve the uniqueness of flora and fauna, national parks and nature reserves . Each of them is strictly controlled at the state level in order to ensure the conservation of fauna and flora, especially with regard to rare and unique species. In the territory of such parks there is a division into special zones. Among the general list are reserved areas. These are places where nature is preserved in its original form. There is strictly prohibited any human intervention. The list of national parks includes:
- The business card of the country is Belovezhskaya Pushcha . This national park is famous primarily for the largest mammal - a bison. Also on the territory under protection are other representatives of the fauna. From the unique here there are white-tailed eagles and black storks.
- Narochansky National Park includes the largest lake in the Republic of Belarus - Naroch . Representatives of all the orders of the animal kingdom live in the park. The forest part is different in variety: some birds number more than 90 species. It is also here that such rare specimens are found, as a black stork or a crouch.
- In the northwest of the republic there is a group of lakes, which are connected by a whole labyrinth of straits. They are located on the territory of Braslav Lakes National Park .
- The the Pripyatski National Park, which is famous far beyond Of Belarus. This is the place where the Pripyat River carries its waters to the Black Sea. The floodplain of this river has become the largest migration channel of migratory birds in Europe. "Belarusian Amazon" is home to many species of animals, some of which are listed in the Red Book
- The oldest protected object is Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve. It is also famous for the fact that it was here that the population of the river beaver was restored, the populations of brown bear and black stork are preserved. On the territory of the reserve there are good conditions for living many species of fauna.
- At the border with Poland and Ukraine, a biospheric reserve «Pribuzhskoe Polesie». The animal world here is also distinguished by its diversity and uniqueness. For example, in this territory you can meet the Belarusian tortoise. A large white heron, a white-eyed duck, and a big bittern live here.
Zoos of Belarus
It is absolutely safe to see animals in Belarus at a very close distance. Such an opportunity is provided by zoos and zoos. They gathered representatives of both local fauna and exotic individuals from abroad. The largest zoo is the city of Grodno, it is also the oldest. Today it numbers more than 3,000 animals.
On the second place in size, but not by variety is the Minsk Zoo. Here, on natural streams of the river Svisloch live waterfowl birds, the contact platform is opened, where it is possible to pet representatives of domestic animals. Also available are an aquarium, a terrarium, a dolphinarium and an exotarium.
Smaller establishments can be visited on the territory of Belarus. For example, contact zoos where you can take animals in your arms and play with them. Raccoons are very popular. Those who like exotic species, you can visit ostrich farms. For example, you can learn more about the life of these amazing creatures on farms «Straussland» or «Nightingale Grove».
An interesting place is also center for ecological tourism «Stankovo». In the zoo, you can see ostriches, pheasants, peacocks. Two friends already became famous: the bear Vasilisa and the dog Anfisa. Walking along the enclosures you can treat your favorite animal with a delicacy. For tourists, you can get acquainted with the fauna of Belarus by visiting such places as «Dudutki» , Zoo in Mogilev, estate «Korobchitsy», Berezinsky Reserve , Belovezhskaya Pushcha , unique Gomel Region and other equally interesting places.
Thus, it is possible to say with certainty that the fauna of the Republic of Belarus is characterized by diversity and uniqueness. It is part of the pan-European fauna and is a real treasury of the state.Book a rest in Belarus/font>